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A compass rose, sometimes called a 'windrose' or 'rose of the winds', includes True or Magnetic North on a map. Usually the difference in degrees is listed (declination a.k.a. variation) and constantly changes as the weeks and months go by.

In September, for the first time in 360 years, True North and Magnetic North lined up at Greenwich. This occurrence is so rare that it hasn't happened since the Greenwich Observatory was built back in 1676! Due to magnetic changes in the Earth's molten core the location of the magnetic North Pole 'wanders'. Navigators have always needed to make continuous adjustments for the difference. Magnetic North moves around 10 kilometers a year. 

Naturally a Scotsman, John Ross, led the first expedition to reach the North Magnetic Pole. He found it on June 1, 1831.

Sir John Ross, (b.1777, Balsarroch, Wigtownshire —d.1856), was a British naval officer whose second Arctic expedition in search of the Northwest Passage, located the North Magnetic Pole. Leaving the ship during a sledge journey, his nephew James Clark Ross located the pole using a magnetic dip-circle and the Pole Star. The following year the ship was crushed in the ice. John Ross and his men were rescued by a whaler in the summer of 1833. Not a dull moment in those days! Both John Ross (uncle) and James Clark Ross (nephew) were two of the greatest polar explorers of the time. NB: James Clark Ross was very dashing and was known by the ladies as 'the handsomest man in the Navy'. 

By the time you read this the magnetic declination at Dunbar will be -1.2 deg. (ie: 1.2 deg west)

Diagram: Magnetic North's movements Credit: NOAA

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